World Trade Center Medical Studies – Selected Bibliography

Since the 9/11 attacks, numerous studies have been done on the health consequences and damage suffered by first responders, volunteers, residents, area workers, business owners, students, and everyone else who became exposed to the toxic pollutants and the fine particulates. Below is a partial bibliography of peer reviewed published studies on the effects of WTC toxic exposure.

 

2001

Occupational Exposures during the World Trade Center Disaster Response, Kenneth Wallingford and Erin Snyder. Toxicology and Industrial Health, Vol. 17, No. 5-10, 247-253 (2001).

U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report [USGS OFR 01-0429].

World Trade Center Attack and Cancer Risk: A Waiting Game, Emma Hitt. Lancet Oncology Nov. 2001, 652.

 

2002

Characterization of the Dust/Smoke Aerosol that Settled East of the World Trade Center (WTC) in Lower Manhattan After the Collapse of the WTC 11 September 2001, Lioy PJ, Weisel CP, Millette JR, Eisenreich S, Vallero D, Offenberg J, Buckley B, Turpin B, Zhong M, Cohen MD, Prophete C, Yang I, Stiles R, Chee G, Johnson W, Porcja R, Alimokhtari S, Hale RC, Weschler C, Chen LC. Environ Health Perspect. 2002, 110(7):703-14. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1240917&blobtype=pdf

Cough and Bronchial Responsiveness in Firefighters at the World Trade Center Site, Prezant DJ, Weiden M, Banauch GI, McGuinness G, Rom WN, Aldrich TK & Kelly KJ. N Eng J Med 2002;347:806-15. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/reprint/347/11/806.pdf

Identification and Characterization of World Trade Center Disaster Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution at a Site in Lower Manhattan Following September 11, Thurston G, Maciejczyk P, Lall R, Hwang J, Chen LC. 2003. Epidemiology 14:S87–S88.

Injuries and Illnesses among New York City Fire Department Rescue Workers After Responding to the World Trade Center Attacks, Banauch GI, McLaughlin M, Hirschhorn R, Corrigan M, Kelly KJ, Prezant DJ. MMWR 2002; 51:1-5. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm51Spa1.htm

Microscopical Studies of World Trade Center Disaster Dust Particles, James R. Millette, Randy Boltin, Pronda Few, William Turner, Jr. Microscope Vol. 50:1 29-35 (2002).

NIOSH Air Sample Results for the World Trade Center Disaster Response, February 2002.

Occupational Exposures to Air Contaminants at the World Trade Center Disaster Site — New York, September–October 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002;51:453-6. Reported by K McKinney, MPA, New York City Dept. of Health; S Benson, New York City Office of Emergency Management; A Lempert, New York City School Construction Authority. M Singal, MD, Cincinnati, Ohio. K Wallingford, MS, E Snyder, MS, Div. of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC.

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5121a1.htm

Protecting Emergency Responders: Lessons Learned from Terrorist Attacks, Brian A. Jackson, D. J. Peterson, James T. Bartis,Tom LaTourrette, Irene Brahmakulam, Ari Houser, Jerry Sollinger. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 2002. http://www.rand.org/pubs/conf_proceedings/2006/CF176.pdf

Rapid Assessment of Injuries among Survivors of the Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center–New York City, September 2001, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. MMWR 2002; 51:1-5. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5101a1.htm

Risk Communication in the Aftermath of the World Trade Center Disaster, Thurston G, Chen LC. 2002. Am J Ind Med 42:543–544.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Toxicological Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Derived from the Destruction of the World Trade Center, December 2002, Stephen H. Gavett, Najwa Haykal-Coates, John K. McGee, Jerry W. Highfill, Allen D. Ledbetter, and Daniel L. Costa http://www.epa.gov/NHEERL/wtc/WTC_report_7b3i.pdf  

World Trade Center Cough, Chen LC, Thurston G. Lancet 2002; 360 (Suppl):S37–S38.

 

2003

Biomonitoring of Chemical Exposure among New York City Firefighters Responding to the World Trade Center Fire and Collapse, Edelman P, Osterloh J, Pirkle J, Caudill SP, Grainger J, Jones R, Blount B, Calafat A, Turner W, Feldman D, Baron S, Bernard B, Lushniak BD, Kelly K, Prezant D. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Dec;111(16):1906-11. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1241765&blobtype=pdf

Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicologic Assessment, McGee JK, Chen LC, Cohen MD, Chee GR, Prophete CM, Haykal-Coates N, Wasson SJ, Conner TL, Costa DL, Gavett SH. Environ Health Perspect. 2003, 111(7): 972-80. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2003/5930/5930.pdf   

Persistent Hyperreactivity and Reactive Airway Dysfunction in Firefighters at the World Trade Center, Banauch GI, Alleyne D, Sanchez R, Olender K, Weiden M, Kelly KJ, & Prezant DJ. Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. 2003; 168:54-62. http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/reprint/168/1/54

Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Dusts That Settled across Lower Manhattan after September 11, 2001, J. H. Offenberg, S.J. Eisenreich, L.C. Chen, M.D. Cohen, G. Chee, C. Prophete, C. Weisel, P. J. Lioy. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 502-508.

World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter Causes Respiratory Tract Hyperresponsiveness in Mice, Gavett SH, Haykal-Coates N, Highfill JW, Ledbetter AD, Chen LC, Cohen MD, Harkema JR, Wagner JG, Costa DL. Environ Health Perspect. 2003; 111:981-991.

World Trade Center Rescue Worker Injury and Illness Surveillance, New York, 2001, Berríos-Torres SI, Greenko JA, Phillips M, Miller JR, Treadwell T, Ikeda RM. Am. J. Prev. Med. 2003; 25:79-87. http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0749-3797/PIIS0749379703001107.pdf

 

2004 

Air Levels of Carcinogenic Polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons after the World Trade Center Disaster, Joachim D. Pleil, Alan F. Vette, Brent A. Johnson, and Stephen M. Rappaport. PNAS August 10, 2004 vol. 101 no. 32 11685-11688.   

Air Pollution Measurements in the Vicinity of the World Trade Center, Summary of Measurements Conducted by EPA-ORD,  Alan Vette, Robert Seila, Erick Swartz, Joachim Pleil, Laura Webb, Matthew Landis, Alan Huber, Daniel Vallero. EM February 2004: 23-26.

Analysis of Aerosols from the World Trade Center Collapse Site, New York, October 2 to October 30, 2001, Cahill, Thomas A., Cliff, Steven S., Perry, Kevin D., Jimenez-Cruz, Michael, Bench, Graham, Grant, Patrick, Ueda, Dawn, Shackelford, James F., Dunlap, Michael, Meier, Michael, Kelly, Peter B., Riddle, Sarah, Selco, Jodye and Leifer, Robert (2004). Aerosol Science and Technology,38:2, 165 — 183.  Hard copy purchased.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physical Health Status of World Trade Center Rescue & Recovery Workers & Volunteers – New York City, July 2002 – August 2004. MMWR 2004;53:807-812. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5335a1.htm

Health and Environmental Consequences of the World Trade Center Disaster, Philip J Landrigan, Paul J Lioy, George Thurston, Gertrud Berkowitz, L C Chen, Steven N Chillrud, Stephen H Gavett, Panos G Georgopoulos, Alison S Geyh, Stephen Levin, Frederica Perera, Stephen M Rappaport, Christopher Small, and NIEHS World Trade Center Working Group. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112:731-9. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2004/6702/6702.pdf

Induced Sputum Assessment in New York City Firefighters Exposed to World Trade Center Dust, Fireman EM, Lerman Y, Ganor E, Greif J, Fireman-Shoresh S, Lioy PJ, Banauch GI, Weiden M, Prezant DJ. Environ Health Perspect, 2004; 112: 1564-1569. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2004/7233/7233.pdf

Initial Symptoms, Respiratory Function & Respirator Use in New York City Firefighters Responding to the World Trade Center (WTC) Disaster, Feldman DM, Baron S, Mueller CA, Bernard BP, Lushniak BD, Kelly KJ, Prezant DJ. Chest 2004;125:1256-64. http://www.chestjournal.org/content/125/4/1256.full.pdf+html

 

2005

Respiratory Effects of Inhalation Exposure among Workers During the Clean-Up Effort at the WTC Disaster Site, Herbstman Julie B.; Frank Robert; Schwab Margo; Williams Dann L.; Samet Jonathan M.; Breysse Patrick N.; Geyh Alison S. Environ Res. 2005;99: 85-92.

 

2006

Pulmonary Function after Exposure to the World Trade Center Collapse in the New York City Fire Department, Banauch GI, Hall C, Weiden M, Cohen HW, Aldrich TK, Christodoulou V, Arcentales N, Kelly KJ, & Prezant DJ. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2006, 174:312-319. http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/reprint/174/3/312

Surveillance for World Trade Center Heath Effects among Survivors of Collapsed and Damaged Buildings, Robert M. Brackbill, PhD, Lorna E. Thorpe, PhD, Laura DiGrande, MPH, Megan Perrin, MPH, James H. Sapp, II, MS, David Wu, MS, Sharon Campolucci, MSN, Deborah J. Walker, PhD, Jim Cone, MD, Paul Pulliam, Lisa Thalji, MA, Mark R. Farfel, ScD, Pauline Thomas, MD. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2006 Apr 7;55(2):1-18.

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5502a1.htm

The Anatomy of the Exposures That Occurred around the World Trade Center Site, Lioy P, Georgopoulos P [2006]. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1076: 54-79.

The World Trade Center Aftermath and Its Effects on Health: Understanding and Learning Through Human-Exposure Science, Lioy P, Pellizzari E, Prezant D [2006]. Environmental Science and Technology 40(22): 6876-6885.

The World Trade Center Disaster and Health of Workers; Five Year Assessment of a Unique Medical Screening Program, Robin Herbert, Jacqueline Moline, Gwen Skloot, Kristina Metzger, Sherry Baron, Benjamin Luft, Steven Markowitz, Iris Udasin, Denise Harrison, Diane Stein, Andrew Todd, Paul Enright, Jeanne Mager Stellman, Philip J. Landrigan, and Stephen M. Levin. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006; 114:1853-8. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2006/9592/9592.pdf

Top Doctors Say Trade Center Dust Could Cause Cancer, Jill Gardiner, New York Sun, October 4, 2006. http://www.nysun.com/new-york/top-doctors-say-trade-center-dust-could-cause/40891/

 

2007

Asthma Diagnosed After September 11, 2001 among Rescue and Recovery Workers: Findings from the World Trade Center Registry, Wheeler K, McKelvey, Thorpe L, Perrin M, Cone J, Kass D, Farfel M, Thomas P, and Brackbill R. Environ Health Perspect. On-line August 2007. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/10248/10248.pdf

FDNY WTC Health Effects – a six year assessment, FDNY 9/11/2007,Kelly, KJ, Niles J, Corrigan M, McLaughlin MT, Carroll S, Al-Othman F, and Prezant DJ. http://www.nyc.gov/html/om/pdf/2007/wtc_health_impacts_on_fdny_rescue_workers_sept_2007.pdf

The Legacy of World Trade Center Dust, Jonathan M. Samet, M.D., Alison S. Geyh, Ph.D., and Mark J. Utell, M.D. New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 356:2233-2236 May 31, 2007 Number 22. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/356/22/2233

Relationship between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon–DNA Adducts, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, and Child Development in the World Trade Center Cohort, Frederica P. Perera, Deliang Tang, Virginia Rauh, Yi Hsuan Tu, Wei Yann Tsai, Mark Becker, Janet L. Stein, Jeffrey King, Giuseppe Del Priore, and Sally Ann Lederman. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 October; 115(10): 1497–1502. (Prenatal cord blood study of PAH exposure) http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=2022637&blobtype=pdf           

U.S.G.S. Environmental Studies of the World Trade Center Area, New York City, after September 11, 2001. http://home2.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/publications/wtc_assessments/2007/chi_final.pdf

 

2008

David Prezant, M.D. NIOSH Blog. https://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2008/09/08/wtc/

Overview: Health Consequences of the World Trade Center Disaster, Prezant DJ, Levin S, Kelly K, and Aldrich TK. Mt. Sinai Medical Journal 2008; 75:89-100.

 

2009

World Trade Center Cases in the New York Workers’ Compensation System. New York State Workers’ Compensation Board, Paterson, D. A., & Beloten, R. E. (2009). http://www.wcb.ny.gov/content/main/TheBoard/WCBWTCReport2009.pdf

 

2011

9/11 Study on Cancer Risk May Be Premature, Goozner M.  Journal of the National Cancer Institute.  2011 Dec 7;103(23):1735-7.  Epub 2011 Nov 18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22100584

Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses Reported by World Trade Center Response Workers and Volunteers, Perritt, K. R., Herbert, R., Stephen, L., & Moline, J. (2011). Prehosp Disaster Med., 26(6), 401–407. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4680838/

 

2012

Association between World Trade Center Exposure and Excess Cancer Risk, Li J, Cone JE, Kahn AR et al. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2012 Dec 19;308(23):2479-88. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23288447

Cancers Join List of Illnesses Linked to 9/11 Attacks. Kaiser J. Environmental Health. Science. 2012 Sep 21;337(6101):1447. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22997301

Potential Carcinogenic Effects of World Trade Center Dust after Intratracheal Instillation to Sprague-Dawley Rats: First Observation, Soffritti M, Falcioni L, Bua L et al. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2012 Sep 19. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22109. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22996685

World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of Certain Types of Cancer to the List of WTC-related Health Conditions. Final Rule. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HHS. Federal Register. 2012 Sep 12;77(177):56138-68. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22970452

 

2013

Cancer Incidence in World Trade Center Rescue and Recovery Workers, 2001-2008, Solan S, Wallenstein S, Shapiro M et al. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2013 Apr 23. [Epub ahead of print]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23613120

Comment on Exposure on September 11, 2001, and Cancer Risk, Nasseri K. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2013 Apr 3;309(13):1344. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2240. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23549571

Reply to Comment on Exposure on September 11, 2001, and Cancer Risk, Stellman SD, Li J. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2013 Apr 3;309(13):1344. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2240. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23549572

Update On . . . Environmental Carcinogens, Behrend SW. Oncology Nursing forum. 2013 May 1;40(3):295-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23597657

 

2015

Department of Health and Human Services. (2015). World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions, 54746 –54760. https://federalregister.gov/a/2015-22599

NYPD Cancer Incidence Rates 1995-2014 Encompassing the Entire World Trade Center Cohort, Kleinman EJ, Christos PJ, Gerber LM, et al. J Occup Environ Med. 2015 Oct;57(10):e101-13. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000542. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26461871 

 

2016

A PTSD Symptoms Trajectory Mediates between Exposure Levels and Emotional Support in Police Responders to 9/11: A Growth Curve Analysis, Schwarzer R, Cone JE, Li J, et al. BMC Psychiatry. 2016 Jul 4;16:201. doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-0907-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27373581

Agreement Between Self-Reported and Confirmed Cancer Diagnoses in New York City Firefighters and EMS Workers, 2001-2011, Zeig-Owens R, Kablanian A, Webber MP, et al. Public Health Rep. 2016 Jan-Feb;131(1):153-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26843681

Asthma Control in Adolescents 10 to 11 Years after Exposure to the World Trade Center Disaster, Gargano LM, Thomas PA, Stellman SD. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. Pediatr Res. 2016 Sep 22. doi: 10.1038/pr.2016.190. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27656769

Blood Eosinophils and World Trade Center Exposure Predict Surgery in Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A 13.5-Year Longitudinal Study, Kwon S, Putman B, Weakley J, et al. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 Apr 20. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096198

Bronchial Reactivity and Lung Function after World Trade Center Exposure, Aldrich TK1, Weakley J2, Dhar S1,et al. Chest. 2016 Jul 18. pii: S0012-3692(16)52654-3. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.07.005 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27445092

Cancer in World Trade Center Responders: Findings from Multiple Cohorts and Options for Future Study, Boffetta P, Zeig-Owens R, Wallenstein S, et al. Am J Ind Med. 2016 Feb;59(2):96-105. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22555. Epub 2016 Jan 4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26725936

Destruction of the World Trade Towers: Lessons Learned from an Environmental Health Disaster, Reibman J, Levy-Carrick N, Miles T, et al. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 Feb 12. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26872108

 Health Conditions as Mediators of the Association Between World Trade Center Exposure and Health-Related Quality of Life in Firefighters and EMS Workers, Yip J, Zeig-Owens R, Hall CB, et al. J Occup Environ Med. 2016 Feb;58(2):200-6. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000597. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26849265

Impact of Acute Exposure to WTC Dust on Ciliated and Goblet Cells in Lungs of Rats, Cohen MD, Vaughan JM, Garrett B, et al. Inhal Toxicol. 2015;27(7):354-61. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2015.1054531. Epub 2015 Jul 21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26194034

Longitudinal Lung Function Decrements in Firefighters Who Responded to the World Trade Center Disaster: Important Insights for the Preservation of Lung Function in Future Disasters, Mohr LC. Chest. 2016 Jun;149(6):1362-4. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.03.056. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2728756

Mortality among World Trade Center Rescue and Recovery Workers, 2002-2011, Stein CR1, Wallenstein S1, Shapiro M1, et al. Am J Ind Med. 2016 Feb;59(2):87-95. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22558. Epub 2016 Jan 4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26727695

 Neurologic Evaluations of Patients Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster,

Stecker MM, Yu H, Barlev R, et al. J Occup Environ Med. 2016 Nov;58(11):1150-1154. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27820766

NYPD Cancer Incidence Rates 1995-2014 Encompassing the Entire World Trade Center Cohort,

Kleinman EJ, Christos PJ, Gerber LM, et al. J Occup Environ Med. 2015 Oct;57(10):e101-13. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000542. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26461871

Obesity and Weight Gain among former World Trade Center Workers and Volunteers, Napier CO, Mbadugha O, Bienenfeld LA, et al. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2016 Jun 7:1-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27268046

Performance of Self-Report to Establish Cancer Diagnoses in Disaster Responders and Survivors, World Trade Center Health Registry, New York, 2001-2007, Li J, Cone JE, Alt AK,et al. Public Health Rep. 2016 May-Jun;131(3):420-9.

Post-September 11, 2001, Incidence of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases in World Trade Center-Exposed Firefighters and Emergency Medical Service Workers, Webber MP, Moir W, Crowson CS, et al. Mayo Clin Proc. 2016 Jan;91(1):23-32. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.09.019. Epub 2015 Dec 9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682920

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Dimensions and Asthma Morbidity in World Trade Center Rescue and Recovery Workers, Mindlis I, Morales-Raveendran E, Goodman E, et al. J Asthma. 2016 Dec 1:1-9. doi: 10.1080/02770903.2016.1263650. [Epub ahead of print] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905829

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Body Mass Index among World Trade Center Disaster-Exposed Smokers: A Preliminary Examination of the Role of Anxiety Sensitivity, Farris SG, Paulus DJ, Gonzalez A, et al. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Apr 22;241:135-140. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.074. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27173658

Prostate Cancer Characteristics in the World Trade Center Cohort, 2002-2013, Hashim D, Boffetta P, Galsky M, Oh W, Lucchini R, Crane M, Luft B, Moline J, Udasin I, Harrison D, Taioli E. Eur J Cancer Prev 2016 Nov 24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed

Prostate Cancer Characteristics in the World Trade Center Cohort, 2002-2013, Hashim D, Boffetta P, Galsky M, et al. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2016 Nov 24. [Epub ahead of print] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27898584

Proteomic Characterization of the World Trade Center Dust-Activated mdig and c-myc Signaling Circuit Linked to Multiple Myeloma, Wu K, Li L, Thakur C. Sci Rep. 2016 Nov 11;6:36305. doi: 10.1038/srep36305. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27833099

Quality of Life of Persons Injured on 9/11: Qualitative Analysis from the World Trade Center Health Registry, Gargano LM, Gershon RR, Brackbill RM. PLoS Curr. 2016 Oct 27;8. pii: ecurrents.dis.7c70f66c1e6c5f41b43c797cb2a04793. doi: 10.1371/currents.dis.7c70f66c1e6c5f41b43c797cb2a04793. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28042514

Radiologic Features of World Trade Center-related Sarcoidosis in Exposed NYC Fire Department Rescue Workers, Girvin F1, Zeig-Owens R, Gupta D, et al. Chest. J Thorac Imaging. 2016 Sep;31(5):296-303. doi: 10.1097/RTI.0000000000000230 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27442523

Risk Factors for and Consequences of Persistent Lower Respiratory Symptoms among World Trade Center Health Registrants 10 years After the Disaster, Friedman SM, Farfel MR, Maslow C, et al. Occup Environ Med. 2016 Oct;73(10):676-84. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2015-103512. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27449135 

The Effect of World Trade Center Exposure on the Latency of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Diagnoses in New York City firefighters: 2001-2011, Weakley J, Hall CB, Liu X,et al. Occup Environ Med. 2016 Apr;73(4):280-3. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2015-103094. Epub 2015 Nov 16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26574577

Trajectories in World Trade Center Airways Disease: Progression versus Improvement, Miller A. Chest. 2016 Nov;150(5):1166-1167. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.07.044. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27832888

World Trade Center Health Program; Amendments to Definitions, Appeals, and Other Requirements. Final Rule, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HHS. Fed Regist. 2016 Dec 15;81(241):90926-47. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28030758

The following studies were reported in a special 9/11 issue of the American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Am. J. Ind. Med., 59 (9): 

Asthma among Staten Island Fresh Kills Landfill and Barge Workers Following the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks (pages 795–804), James E. Cone, Sukhminder Osahan, Christine C. Ekenga, Sara A. Miller-Archie, Steven D. Stellman, Monique Fairclough, Stephen M. Friedman and Mark R. Farfel.

Biomarkers of Patient Intrinsic Risk for Upper and Lower Airway Injury after Exposure to the World Trade Center Atrocity (pages 788–794), Rachel Zeig-Owens, Anna Nolan, Barbara Putman, Ankura Singh, David J. Prezant and Michael D. Weiden.

Effect of Asthma and PTSD on Persistence and Onset of Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms among Adults Exposed to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks (pages 805–814), Jiehui Li, Robert M. Brackbill, Hannah T. Jordan, James E. Cone, Mark R. Farfel and Steven D. Stellman

FDNY and 9/11: Clinical Services and Health Outcomes in World Trade Center-Exposed Firefighters and EMS Workers from 2001 to 2016 (pages 695–708), Jennifer Yip, Mayris P. Webber, Rachel Zeig-Owens, Madeline Vossbrinck, Ankura Singh, Kerry Kelly and David J. Prezant.

Improvement in Severe Lower Respiratory Symptoms and Small Airway Function in World Trade Center Dust Exposed Community Members (pages 777–787), Caralee Caplan-Shaw, Angeliki Kazeros, Deepak Pradhan, Kenneth Berger, Roberta Goldring, Sibo Zhao, Mengling Liu, Yongzhao Shao, Maria Elena Fernandez-Beros, Michael Marmor, Nomi Levy-Carrick, Rebecca Rosen, Lucia Ferri and Joan Reibman.

Impact of 9/11-Related Chronic Conditions and PTSD Comorbidity on Early Retirement and Job Loss among World Trade Center Disaster Rescue and Recovery Workers (pages 731–741), Shengchao Yu, Robert M. Brackbill, Sean Locke, Steven D. Stellman and Lisa M. Gargano.

Isolated Small Airway Reactivity During Bronchoprovocation As A Mechanism for Respiratory Symptoms in WTC Dust-Exposed Community Members (pages 767–776), Kenneth I. Berger, Samantha Kalish, Yongzhao Shao, Michael Marmor, Angeliki Kazeros, Beno W. Oppenheimer, Yinny Chan, Joan Reibman and Roberta M. Goldring.

Mental Health Status of World Trade Center Tower Survivors Compared to Other Survivors a Decade after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks (pages 742–751), Lisa M. Gargano, Angela Nguyen, Laura DiGrande and Robert M. Brackbill.

Post-9/11 Cancer Incidence in World Trade Center-Exposed New York City Firefighters as Compared to a Pooled Cohort of Firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (9/11/2001-2009) (pages 722–730), William Moir, Rachel Zeig-Owens, Robert D. Daniels, Charles B. Hall, Mayris P. Webber, Nadia Jaber, James H. Yiin, Theresa Schwartz, Xiaoxue Liu, Madeline Vossbrinck, Kerry Kelly and David J. Prezant.

Sex Differences in Asthma and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Incidence among the World Trade Center Health Program General Responder Cohort (pages 815–822), Jieying Jiang, Nikolina Icitovic, Michael A. Crane, Christopher R. Dasaro, Julia R. Kaplan, Roberto G. Lucchini, Benjamin J. Luft, Jacqueline M. Moline, Lakshmi Pendem, Moshe Shapiro, Iris G. Udasin, Andrew C. Todd and Susan L. Teitelbaum.

Ten-Year Cancer Incidence in Rescue/Recovery Workers and Civilians Exposed to the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the World Trade Center (pages 709–721), Jiehui Li, Robert M. Brackbill, Tim S. Liao, Baozhen Qiao, James E. Cone, Mark R. Farfel, James L. Hadler, Amy R. Kahn, Kevin J. Konty, Leslie T. Stayner and Steven D. Stellman.

The Association Between Body Mass Index and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the World Trade Center Health Program General Responder Cohort (pages 761–766), Nikolina Icitovic, Lynn C. Onyebeke, Sylvan Wallenstein, Christopher R. Dasaro, Denise Harrison, Jieying Jiang, Julia R. Kaplan, Roberto G. Lucchini, Benjamin J. Luft, Jacqueline M. Moline, Lakshmi Pendem, Moshe Shapiro, Iris G. Udasin, Andrew C. Todd and Susan L. Teitelbaum.

The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Law Enforcement Officers Who Responded to the 9/11 World Trade Center Attacks (pages 752–760), Jacqueline M. Moline, Mary Ann McLaughlin, Simonette T. Sawit, Cynara Maceda, Lori B. Croft, Martin E. Goldman, Mario J. Garcia, Rupa L. Iyengar and Mark Woodward.

 2017

Lisa M. Gargano, PhD, MPH, Sean Locke, MPH, Hannah T. Jordan, MD, MPH, Robert M. Brackbill, PhD, MPH. Lower Respiratory Symptoms Associated with Environmental and Reconstruction Exposures after Hurricane Sandy.

The flooding after Hurricane Sandy (Sandy) resulted in conditions that could potentially lead to an increased risk of lower respiratory symptoms (LRS). This study sought to determine the relationship between Sandy-related exposures and post-Sandy LRS in a population with prior exposure to the World Trade Center disaster. The Sandy-related inhalational exposures examined were: 1) reconstruction exposure; 2) mold or damp environment exposure; and 3) other respiratory irritants exposure. Over one-third of participants reported post-Sandy LRS. Enrollees reporting any of the exposures were twice as likely to have post-Sandy LRS. There was a dose-response relationship between the number of Sandy-related exposures reported and post-Sandy LRS. This study shows that post-hurricane clean-up and reconstruction exposures can increase the risk for LRS. Public health interventions should emphasize the importance of safe remediation practices and recommend use of personal protective equipment.

Cheryl Stein, PhD, David J. Lee, PhD, Gregory A. Flamme, PhD, and James E. Cone, MD, MPH. Persistent Post-9/11 Hearing Problems Among World Trade Center Health Registry Rescue and Recovery Workers, 2001 to 2007. JOEM 2017.

Hearing loss is a concern among World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR) enrollees. A previous study of enrollees who were WTC Tower survivors found that exposure to the cloud of dust and debris generated by the collapse and fires in the WTC Towers and surrounding buildings was associated with reported hearing problems. More recently enrollees have contacted the Registry to discuss concerns about hearing loss. Possible WTC-related causes for hearing loss include ruptured ear drums, head trauma from injuries, toxic exposures in smoke, dust and debris, or noise exposure. Our recently published study found that among those rescue and recovery workers without pre-9/11 hearing problems, 4.4% reported persistent hearing problems in 2006-2007. Men reported more hearing problems than women, and on average, those with hearing problems were older. The prevalence of hearing problems increased with increased numbers of WTC-related environmental hazards. Workers who reported being unable to hear in the dust cloud had over 2 times the odds of reporting hearing problems, compared to workers not in the dust cloud. This study has led the Registry to partner with the Fire Department of the City of New York in a study of hearing function before and after 9/11/01 among firefighters and Emergency Medical Service workers. Future disaster follow-up should include surveillance evaluation of hearing loss among responders.

Airway Disease in Rescue/Recovery Workers: Recent Findings from the World Trade Center Collapse

Cleven KL, Webber MP, Zeig-Owens R, et al. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2017 Jan;17(1):5. doi: 10.1007/s11882-017-0670-9.

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Bronchodilator Response, and Incident Asthma in World Trade Center Rescue and Recovery Workers

de la Hoz RE, Jeon Y, Miller GE, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Dec 1;194(11):1383-1391.

Respiratory Problems and Anxiety Sensitivity in Smoking Lapse among Treatment Seeking Smokers

Zvolensky MJ, Rodríguez-Cano R, Paulus DJ, et al. Addict Behav. 2017 Jun 23;75:25-29. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.06.015. [Epub ahead of print]

Performance of Self-Report to Establish Cancer Diagnoses in Disaster Responders and Survivors, World Trade Center Health Registry, New York, 2001-2007

Li J, Cone JE, Alt AK,et al. Public Health Rep. 2016 May-Jun;131(3):420-9.

Injury, Intense Dust Exposure, and Chronic Disease among Survivors of the World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001

Alper HE, Yu S, Stellman SD, et al. Inj Epidemiol. 2017 Dec;4(1):17. doi: 10.1186/s40621-017-0115-x. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Conduct of Occupational Health during Major Disasters: A Comparison of Literature on Occupational Health Issues in the World Trade Center Terrorist Attack and the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

Toyoda H, Mori K. J UOEH. 2017;39(2):153-159. doi: 10.7888/juoeh.39.153.

Post-9/11 Sarcoidosis in WTC-Exposed Firefighters and Emergency Medical Service Workers

Webber MP, Yip J, Zeig-Owens R, et al. Respir Med. 2017 Jun 7. pii: S0954-6111(17)30170-1. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2017.06.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Risk Factors for Persistence of Lower Respiratory Symptoms among Community Members Exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks

Jordan HT, Friedman SM, Reibman J,et al. Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jun;74(6):449-455. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2016-104157. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Post-9/11/2001 lung function trajectories by sex and race in World Trade Center-exposed New York City emergency medical service workers

Vossbrinck M, Zeig-Owens R, Hall CB,et al. Occup Environ Med. 2017 Mar;74(3):200-203. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2016-103619. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Hospitalizations for asthma among adults exposed to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attack

Miller-Archie SA, Jordan HT, Alper H, et al. J Asthma. 2017 Jun 6:1-10. doi: 10.1080/02770903.2017.1337787. [Epub ahead of print]

Obesity and Weight Gain among Former World Trade Center Workers and Wolunteers

Napier CO, Mbadugha O, Bienenfeld LA, et al. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2017 Mar 4;72(2):106-110. doi: 10.1080/19338244.2016.1197174. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Serum Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Children Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster

Trasande L, Koshy TT, Gilbert J, et al. Environ Res. 2017 Apr;154:212-221. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.01.008. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

The Effectiveness of a Monetary Incentive Offer on Survey Response Rates and Response Completeness in a Longitudinal Study

Yu S, Alper HE, Nguyen AM, et al. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2017 Apr 26;17(1):77. doi: 10.1186/s12874-017-0353-1.

Hurricane Sandy Exposure and the Mental Health of World Trade Center Responders

Bromet EJ, Clouston S, Gonzalez A, et al. J Trauma Stress. 2017 Apr;30(2):107-114. doi: 10.1002/jts.22178. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Risk Factors for Persistence of Lower Respiratory Symptoms among Community Members Exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks

Jordan HT, Friedman SM, Reibman J, et al. Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jun;74(6):449-455. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2016-104157. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Psychological Distress in Parents and School-Functioning of Adolescents: Results from the World Trade Center Registry

Gargano LM, Dechen T, Cone JE,et al. J Urban Health. 2017 Mar 20. doi: 10.1007/s11524-017-0143-4. [Epub ahead of print]

A Comparative Assessment of Major International Disasters: The Need for Exposure Assessment, Systematic Emergency Preparedness, and Lifetime Health Care

Lucchini RG, Hashim D, Acquilla S, et al. BMC Public Health. 2017 Jan 7;17(1):46. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3939-3

Intensity of Binge Drinking a Decade After the September 11th Terror Attacks Among Exposed Individuals

Welch AE, Caramanica Zweig K, McAteer JM, et al. Am J Prev Med. 2017 Feb;52(2):192-198. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.034.

Serum Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Children Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster

Trasande L, Koshy TT, Gilbert J, et al. Environ Res. 2017 Apr;154:212-221. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.01.008. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Understanding the Connection Between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Respiratory Problems: Contributions of Anxiety Sensitivity

Mahaffey BL, Gonzalez A, Farris SG, et al. J Trauma Stress. 2017 Feb;30(1):71-79. doi: 10.1002/jts.22159. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

Pathway From PTSD to Respiratory Health: Longitudinal Evidence From a Psychosocial Intervention

Waszczuk MA, Li X, Bromet EJ, Gonzalez A, et al. Health Psychol. 2017 Mar 9. doi: 10.1037/hea0000472. [Epub ahead of print]

The Effect of World Trade Center Exposure on the Timing of Diagnoses of Obstructive Airway Disease, Chronic Rhinosinusitis, and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Liu X, Yip J, Zeig-Owens R, et al. Front Public Health. 2017 Feb 8;5:2. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00002. eCollection 2017.

Paresthesias Among Community Members Exposed to The World Trade Center Disaster

Marmor M, Shao Y, Bhatt DH, et al. J Occup Environ Med. 2017 Feb 2. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000966. [Epub ahead of print]

Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Posttraumatic Stress Pathology Among Survivors of the 9/11 World Trade Center Attacks

Rosen RL, Levy-Carrick N, Reibman J, et al. J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Jan 16;89:14-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.01.007. [Epub ahead of print]

Other Relevant Studies

Acid-Induced Esophagobronchial Cardiac Reflexes in Humans, Wright RA, Miller SA, Corsello BF. Gastroenterology 1990;99:71-3.

Airway Dysfunction in Rescue Workers at The World Trade Center Site, Banauch GI, Dhala A, Prezant DJ. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2005; 11:160-8.

American Thoracic Society. Guidelines for Methacholine and Exercise Challenge Testing – 1999. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2000; 161:309-29.

Bronchial Hyperreactivity & Other Inhalation Lung Injuries in Rescue/Recovery Workers After the World Trade Center Collapse, Banauch GI, Dhala A, Alleyne D, Alva R, Santhyadka G, Krasko A, Weiden M, Kelly KJ, Prezant DJ. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:S102-S106.

Assessing Truck Driver Exposure at the World Trade Center Disaster Site: Personal and Area Monitoring for Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds During October 2001 and April 2002, Geyh AS, Chillrud S, Williams DL, Herbstman J, Symons JM, Rees K, Ross J, Kim SR, Lim HJ, Turpin B, and Breysse P. J Occup Environ Hyg 2005;2: 179-93.

Asthma and Gastroesophageal Reflux: Another Piece in The Puzzle?, Field SK. Chest 2002; 121:1024-7.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Self-Reported Increase in Asthma Severity After the September 11 Attacks on the World Trade Center — Manhattan, New York, 2001 MMWR 2002; 51:781-784. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/441154_1

Clinical Deterioration in Pediatric Asthmatic Patients after September 11, 2001, Szema AM, Khedkar M, Maloney PF, Takach PA, Nickels MS, Patel H, Modugno F, Tso AY, Lin DH. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113:420-6.

Early Respiratory Abnormalities in Emergency Services Police officers at the World Trade Center Site, Salzman SH, Moosavy FM, Miskoff JA, Friedmann P, Fried G, Rosen MJ. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46:113-22.

Evolution of Lower Respiratory Symptoms in New York Police officers After 9/11: A Prospective Longitudinal Study, Buyantseva LV, Tulchinsky M, Kapalka GM, Chinchilli VM, Qian Z, Gillio R, Roberts A, Bascom R. J. Occup. Environ Med. 2007; 49: 310-317.

Factors Associated With Bronchial Responsiveness to Histamine in a Population Sample of Adults, Rijcken B, Schouten JP, Mensinga TT, Weiss ST, De Vries K, Van der Lende R. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:1447-53.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Koufman JA. in: Cummings CW, Fredrickson JM, Harker LE, Krause CJ, Schuller DE, Richardson MA, eds. Otolaryngology: head and neck surgery 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby–Year Book, 1998.

Improved Nasal Clearance among Pulp-Mill Workers After The Reduction of Lime Dust, Toren K, Brisman J, Hagberg S, Karlsson G. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1996 Apr;22(2):102-7.

Intraesophageal Perfusion of Acid Increases the Bronchomotor Response to Methacholine and to Isocapnic Hyperventilation in Asthmatic Subjects, Herve P, Denjean A, Jian R, Simonneau G, Duroux P. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986;134:986-9.

Occupational and Environmental Levels of Mutagenic Pahs and Respirable Particulate Matter Associated with Diesel Exhaust in Santiago, Chile, Gil L, Martinez V, Riquelme R, Ancic P, Gonzalez G, Rodriguez L, Adonis M. J Occup Environ Med. 2003 Sep;45(9):984-92.

Physical and Mental Health Symptoms among NYC Transit Workers Seven and One Half Months After the WTC Attacks, Tapp L, Baron S, etal. Am J. Ind. Med. 2005;47:475-483.

Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome, Brooks SM, Weiss MA, Bernstein IL. Chest 1985, 88:376-84.

Respiratory Health of Residents Near The former World Trade Center: The WTC Residents Respiratory Health Survey [Abstract], Reibman J. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167: A335.   

Respiratory Symptoms & Physiologic Assessment of Ironworkers at the World Trade Center Disaster Site, Skloot G, Goldman M, Fischler D, Goldman C, Schechter C, Levin S, Teirstein A. Chest. 2004;25:1248-55.

Simultaneous Tracheal and Oesophageal Ph Measurements in Asthmatic Patients with Gastrooesophageal Reflux, C I Jack, P M Calverley, R J Donnelly, J Tran, G Russell, C R Hind, and C C Evans.  Thorax 1995;50:201-4.

The Relationship of Nonspecific Bronchial Responsiveness to Respiratory Symptoms in a Random Population Sample, Rijcken B, Schouten JP, Weiss ST, Speizer FE, van der Lende R. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;136:62-8.

World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter Causes Respiratory Tract Hyperresponsiveness in Mice, Gavett SH, Haykal-Coates N, Highfill JW, Ledbetter AD, Chen LC, Cohen MD, Harkema JR, Wagner JG, Costa DL. Environ Health Perspect. 2003; 111:981-991.

If you lived or worked in Manhattan below Canal Street between September 11, 2001 and May 31, 2002, and are suffering from a cancer or respiratory illness, you may be entitled to compensation from the VCF. Please call us for a free consultation at (212) 732-9000 or email us at SPBMC-NY@TrialLaw1.com

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